Fake news in the Philippines

Fake news in the Philippines refers to the general and widespread misinformation or disinformation in the country by various actors. It has been problematic in the Philippines where social media and alike plays a key role in influencing topics and information ranging from politics, health, belief, religion, current events, aid, lifestyle, elections and others. Recently, it has evolved to be a rampant issue against the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines and the 2022 Philippine general election.

Following the 2016 Philippine election, Senator Francis Pangilinan filed a proposal to hold an inquiry regarding the conduct of social media platforms that allowed for the spreading of fake news.[1] Pangilinan called for penalties for social media companies that allow disinformation to spread on their platforms.[2]


According to media analysts, developing countries such as the Philippines, with generally new access to social media and democracy, feel the problem of fake news to a larger extent.[3] Facebook is one of the largest platforms being an open website, that works as a booster to sway the opinion of the public due to manufactured stories. While Facebook provides free media sources, it does not provide its users with the access to fact checking websites.[4] Because of this, government authorities call for a tool that will filter out "fake news" to secure the integrity of cyberspace in the Philippines.[1] Rappler, a social news network in the Philippines, investigated online networks of Rodrigo Duterte supporters and discovered that they include fake news, fake accounts, bots, and trolls, which Rappler thinks are being used to silence dissent. The creation of fake news, and fake news accounts on social media has been a danger to the political health of the country. According to Kate Lamble and Megha Mohan of BBC news, "What we're seeing on social media again is manufactured reality ... They also create a very real chilling effect against normal people, against journalists (who) are the first targets, and they attack in very personal ways with death threats and rape threats." Journalists are often risking their lives in publishing articles that contest fake news in the Philippines.[5]

The 2016 Filipino election was influenced, in large part, by false information propagated by fake news outlets. By New York Times contributor Miguel Syjuco's account, President Rodrigo Duterte benefited from a disproportionate amount of complimentary fake news compared to his opponents. The pro-Duterte propaganda spread across Filipino social media include fake endorsements from prominent public figures like Pope Francis and Angela Merkel.[6] Duterte's own campaign was responsible for a portion of the misinformation spread during the election; according to a study from Oxford University's Computational Propaganda Research Program, Duterte's campaign paid an estimated $200,000 for dedicated trolls to undermine dissenters and disseminate misinformation in 2016.[7]

In one incident, Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II tagged opposition senators and other people as masterminds of the 2017 Marawi Crisis attack, based on a photo shared on social media and blog sites that produce fake news.[8] Another government official, Communications Assistant Secretary Margaux "Mocha" Uson has also been accused of spreading fake news.[9][10]

The prevalence of fake news in the Philippines has pushed lawmakers to file laws to combat it, like criminalizing its dissemination.[11][12] The Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines strongly opposes the spread of fake news as a sin, and published a list of fake news websites.[13][14]

Structure and hierarchy

In 2018, Dr. Jason Cabañes of the University of Leeds School of Media and Communication and Dr. Jonathan Corpus Ong of the University of Massachusetts Amherst released a study of organized disinformation efforts in the Philippines, titled "Architects of Networked Disinformation: Behind the Scenes of Troll Accounts and Fake News Production in the Philippines."[15][16][17] Based on participant observation in Facebook community groups and Twitter accounts, as well as key informant interviews with twenty "disinformation architects," conducted from December 2016 to December 2017, the study described a "professionalized and hierarchized group of political operators who design disinformation campaigns, mobilize click armies, and execute innovative “digital black ops” and “signal scrambling” techniques for any interested political client."[18] This network had “ad and PR strategists at the top.”[15]

As a tool of historical denialism

Ong and Cabañes' 2018 study revealed that techniques of "personal branding" and such tools as YouTube videos were used to "tell a revisionist account of the 20-year Marcos regime as 'the golden age of the Philippines' in a bid to restore the political luster of the Marcos family."[18]

The study also revealed the existence of an "Ilibing Na" ("Bury now") campaign designed to create public support for a hero’s burial for Ferdinand Marcos using "diversionary tactics to elude allegations of human rights violations and corruption during the term of Ferdinand Marcos"[18] and launching "digital black ops that targeted prominent critics” of the Marcoses, particularly vice president Leni Robredo.[18]

List of fake news websites

This list includes URLs for sites that are now down or defunct for historical purposes and to aid disinformation researchers. The following are included after investigation conducted by various Philippine news agencies as well as government policies against fake news.

Name URL Notes Sources
24Seven Daily News 24sevendailynews.com Cybersquatted. [19]
360 News Live www.360news.live Domain expired [20]
About Du30 aboutdu30.info Cybersquatted. [21]
Ako'y Pilipino akoy-pilipino.blogspot.com [19]
Aksyon.tv aksyon.tv Contains false information and clickbait headline. Imitates AksyonTV, now One Sports. Now down.
Al Jazeera News TV aljazeeranews-tv.com Masquerades as Al Jazeera. Legitimate url is https://www.aljazeera.com [22]
All Things Pinoy (defunct) allthingspinoy.com "www.allthingspinoy.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information." Now down. [23][24][19]
Angat Pilipino angatpilipino.info 404 error [25]
Asian Policy Press asianpolicy.press "...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this website...". Down again with 404 error. [23][19]
Asenso Pinoy asensopinoy.info 404 error [26][27]
Astig Tayo Pinoy astigtayopinoy.altervista.org Account suspended [28]
Bacolod.altervista.org bacolod.altervista.org Account suspended [29]
Balita Online balitaonline.xyz Now website empty [21]
Balitang Panglahat balitangpanglahat.info Domain parked/cybersquatted [30]
Balitang Pinoy balitangpinoy.ga 404 error [31]
Blog di du30 du30.altervista.org 404 error [29]
Blog di pinoypolitics pinoypolitics.altervista.org Biggest traffic generators on social media: Pinoy Republic, Pres. Rody Duterte News Global and Pilipinas Trending. Account suspended. [32]
Breaking News latestnewz.xyz 404 Error [21]
Breaking BBC breaking-bbc.co.uk Masquerades as BBC. Proper URL is https://www.bbc.com. Domain suspended. [25]
Breezy Network breezynetwork.info 404 error [33]
Caster Ph casterph.xyz 404 error [21]
Citizen Express citizenexpress.today [34]
Classified Trends classifiedtrends.net Domain expired. [23][35][19]
Cnn Channel cnn-channel.com Masquerades as CNN. Legitimate URLs are cnn.com, edition.cnn.com (for CNN International), and cnnphilippines.com. Down. [25]
Dailyartikulo dailyartikulo.info Traffic largely from The Filipino News, Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos and The News Wire social media accounts. Same blog template and theme as DailyInsights. [36]
Daily Filipino dailyfilipino.altervista.org Down. [19]
Daily Filipinews dailyfilipinews.blogspot.com Domain expired. [19]
DailyInsights dailyinsights.today Same blog template and theme as Dailyartikulo. Now Down. [37]
The Daily Sentry thedailysentry.net Publishes false and misleading news constantly.

Has disclaimer: "The Daily Sentry does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information."

Daily Viral Hub dailyviralhub.altervista.org Biggest traffic generators: Facebook pages Marcos Loyalist, Exclusive DDS Marcos the 3rd Force, and BongBong Marcos United. [44]
Dakila.info dakila.info Down. [45]
DDS Files ddsfiles.xyz Down. [46][47]
Dedma Lang dedma.com Front page now empty. Domain still up. [29]
Definitely Filipino definitelyfilipino.com (down)



buzz.definitelyfilipino.com (down)


No About Us, no Contact Us. [23][19]
Dugong Maharlika dugongmaharlika.com Front page blank, has JavaScript [24]
Du30 Gov du30gov.com Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International, Bongbong Marcos Loyalists Movement_Official Group and Marcos Loyalist. Down. [48]
Du30 News du30newsinfo.com Domain expired. [29]
Du30 Today du30today.com Cybersquatted [25]
Dutertards dutertards.info Redirects to 1.dutertards.info. Front page blank, [28]
Duterte Community du30community.info Biggest social media traffic generators: President Duterte Worldwide Supporters, President Duterte Astig Supporters and Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos. Down. [49][50]
Duterte Defender dutertedefender.com Cybersquatted [25]
Duterte Express du30express.site Down [51]
Duterte Federal dutertefederal.info Biggest traffic generators on social media: Silent No More PH, Duterte Worldwide Supporters and President RodyDuterte – Federal Movement International. Down. [52]
Duterte News dutertenews.com (domain expired)

du30news.com (domain expired)

du30news.net (down)

www.dutertenewswatch.com (down)

du3onews.info (down)

Duterte News Blog du30newsblog.blogspot.com [35]
Duterte News Info du30newsinfo.com Contains fake articles and satirical news passed off as real news. Publishes fake articles about Rodrigo Duterte's critics. Cybersquatted. [35]
Duterte Trending News dutertetrendingnews.blogspot.com [19]
Dutertepilipinas.info dutertepilipinas.info Biggest social media traffic generators: Inday Sara Duterte Supporters, President Rodrigo Duterte and Duterte Warriors. Down. [53]
Duterte Trend dutertetrend.info Domain expired. [29]
Dutrending dutrending.info Largest traffic generators: Facebook pages DU30 Trending News, Duterte Worldwide Supporters and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International. redirects to 1.dutrending.info. Down. [28][54]
DW-TV3 dw-tv3.com Imitates Deutsche Welle. Now cybersquatted. [55]
Dyaryo www.dyaryo.net Down. [35]
Media ni Duterte dutertedefender.com (cybersquatted)

lugto.com (domain expired)

Earning Mania earningmania.com Mimics the design of the official ABS-CBN News website (news.abs-cbn.com), complete with the logo of ABS-CBN. It also contains false information to get Bitcoin cash. No about or contact information and domain is now suspended.
Federalism PH jazznews.top Biggest traffic generator from social media: Facebook page Philippine Trending News. Down. [56]
Extreme Readers extremereaders.com Domain Expired. [35]
FilipiNews PH filipinewsph.net "FilipiNews PH does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down and replaced as japanese website. [23][35][57][19]
FilipiNews filipinews.info (down)

filipinews.com (expired)

Down. [19][25]
France 24 TV France24-tv.com Cybersquatted; imitates France 24 (france24.com) [29]
Global News globalnews.favradio.fm Reverted to favradio.fm hosting [29]
GMA TV gma-tv.com Imitates GMA 7. Some false stories released by this fake news website included the alleged photos of a gunman captured by CCTV camera during the 2017 Resorts World Manila attack, supposed plan to establish a Nickelodeon theme park in Coron by the Department of Tourism, and the purported criticism of the National Super Alliance (NASA) by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission and Jubilee for threatening to boycott the August elections.[58] Now down. [59][60][61]
Go for Win goforwin.info [28]
Good News Network Philippines goodnewsnetworkph.com Exploits the name of GNN. Now down. Mocha Uson made a callout to follow its Facebook page as "a true alternative for the good news released by the Duterte Admin" in February 2018.[62] Biggest traffic generators: pro-Duterte Facebook page managed by Mocha Uson, Mocha Uson Blog, President Rody Duterte Facebook Army and Team Duterte for Federalism. [63][64][65][66][67][68]
Good News Today goodnewstoday.d30.club Biggest traffic generators from social media: Marcos Defenders Worldwide Unlimited and Rody R. Duterte Movement Universal. Down [69]
Gossip Diary gossipdiary.com Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International. Domain Expired. [70]
Healthnation Asia healthnation-asia.com Imitates ABS-CBN News Channel, down. [71]
Hot News Philippines hotnewsphil.blogspot.com [35]
I Am Pilipino www.iampilipino.com Error 403. [35]
International Latest Updates internationallatestupdates.blogspot.com Redirect from trendingnewsphfile.net. [35]
Kabalita Ka kabalitaka.blogspot.com Biggest traffic generators on social media: Marcos Loyalist and President Rody Duterte Facebook Army. Now Down. [72]
Kalye Pinoy kalyepinoy.com Now Down. [35][57]
Kanto News PH kantonewsph.xyz (empty)


Biggest traffic generators on social media: Facebook pages President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International, President Duterte Worldwide Supporters and President Duterte Astig Supporters. [73][21][28]
Latest Duterte News latestdutertenews.altervista.org Account suspended [29]
Leak News PH www.leaknewsph.com Down. [35]
Local Hero localhero.altervista.org Account suspended [29]
Maharlika News

Netizens PH

www.maharlikanews.com [24]
Makibalita makibalita.info Down. [74]
Media Curious mediacurious.com Down. [25]
Media Ph mediaph.info Biggest traffic generator: Facebook page Sara Duterte Solid Warriors. Now Down. [75]
Minda Nation mindanation.com Owned by Carlos Munda. 404 [76]
My News TV mynewstv.newsgenic.com Exploits the name of GMA News TV (now GTV). Down [19]
My Prosper my-prosper.press Down. [77]
Nagbabagang Balita nagbabagangbalita.info Redirects to malware website. [78]
Napankamkumametbeewan.info napankamkumametbeewan.info Down. [74][78]
Net Citizen netcitizen.co Redirects to malware website. [25]
News 8 Bureau globalnews.favradio.fm Down. [19]
News Center Ph newscenterph.info Traffic largely generated by Facebook pages President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist, BongBong Marcos United, The Filipino News, Pinas Citizen and News Wire PH. Redirects to malware website. [79][41][80]
News Feed Society www.newsfeedsociety.tk Down. [35]
News Global newsglobal.top Down. [37]
News Info Learn newsinfolearn.com "...www.newsinfolearn.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information...". Now down. [23][19]
News Media PH newsmediaph.com No about Us. Down. [35]
Newspaper Ph newspaperph.com Domain parked/cybersquatted [29]
News Titans newstitans.com Domain expired. [35]
News TV newstv.tulfonews.com Exploits the name of GMA News TV (now GTV). Down. [19]
News TV5 newstv5.com Masquerades as the legitimate https://news.tv5.com.ph, domain expired [29]
Newz Flash newzflash.info [28]
Newsbite.top newsbite.top Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist and We Support Duterte Administration. Down [81]
Online Balita onelinebalita.xyz Down. [21]
Philippine News Blog ilikeyouquotes.blogspot.com Down. [35]
Philippine News Courier philnewscourier.blogspot.com associated with Facebook page "Philippine News Courier." [19][29]
Philippine News Portal www.philnewsportal.com Down. [35]
Philnewstrend dakilanglahi.info Down. [25]
Philstar.i-telecast.com Philstar.i-telecast.com Imitates the website of The Philippine Star. Now down. [55]
Phnewspride Phnewspride.blogspot.com Redirects to Arabic Website with the same domain. [29]
Pilipinas News fullnewsph.xyz Translated term was Balita sa Pilipinas. It is not to be confused with the namesake defunct news program of TV5 and Balita Pilipinas, a defunct news program of GMA News TV (now GTV). Now Down. [82]
Pilipinas Online Updates www.pilipinasonlineupdates.com Takes some of its articles from Balitang Pinas. "Pilipinas Online Updates makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain (sic) onthis website or any sites linked to this site" Now Down. [57]
Pinoy Hopes pinoyhopes.info Down. [37]
Pinoy News pinoynews.info Down. [49][28][37]
Pinas News Portal pinasnewsportal.blogspot.com Down. [19]
Pinoy Freedom Wall pinoyfreedomwall.com Down. [35]
Pinoy News Blogger pinoynewsblogger.blogspot.com Down. [35]
Pinoy Speak pinoyspeak.info Posts satirical articles and passes them off as real news. now Error 502. [35]
Pinoy Viral Issues pinoyviralissues.net Down. [19]
Pinoy World pinoyworld.net Down. [19]
PRRD News phppoliticsnews.blogspot.com Redirects to Indonesian Language Website with the same domain. [35]
Pinoy Observer pinoyobserver.com Front page is blank, but full of JavaScript. Redirects to Scam Chinese Website. [29]
Pinoy Thinking pinoythinking.info Down. [25]
Pinoy Trending pinoytrending.altervista.org No about us, contact info. [23][57]
Pinoy Trending News pinoytrendingnews.net

pinoytrendingnewsph.blogspot.com pinoytrending.altervista.org

"...Information on this site may contain errors and inaccuracies..." [23][57][19]
Pinoy Viral Issues pinoyviralissues.net Down. [35]
PRRD News Tambayan dds-tambayan.info Biggest traffic generator: Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International social media page. Down [83]
Public Trending publictrending.net (down)



"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site." [23][19]
QWAZK qwazk.blogspot.com Redirects to Indonesian website with the same domain. [35]
So Whats News sowhatsnews.wordpress.com Satirical news site. Private Site. [84]
Socialcastph.info socialcastph.info Biggest traffic generator pages from social media: President Rodrigo Duterte, Marcos Loyalist and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International. Down. [85]
Social News PH www.socialnewsph.com Connected to the Facebook pages SNP – Social News Philippines and President Duterte Random Photos. "...does not give assurances as to the accuracy, completeness and currency of its content..." Now domain expired. [35]
Taho News tahonews.com [35]
Tartey Viral tartey.com Contains articles obtained from News Trend PH, which also publishes fake news. No About US, no Contact Us. "makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy or completeness of the content". Now down [35]
Telegraph TV telegraph-tv.com Imitates British newspaper The Telegraph (telegraph.co.uk). Now cybersquatted. [29]
Tatak Du30 tatakdu30.info Down. [28]
The News Feeder thenewsfeeder.net Down. [19]
The Volatilian thevolatilian.com Now Redirected to scam chinese website. [35]
Thinker Vlog thinkervlog.top Down [50]
Today in Manila todayinmanila.ga No About Us, no Contact Us. Now down. [23][19]
Today's Broadcast todaysbroadcast.net Down. [19]
Todays Top News todaystopnews.xyz Down. [21]
Trending Balita trendingbalita.info Now Down/Under Construction. [35]
Trending News Portal tnp.ph (Malware)

trendingnewsportal.com (Malware)

trendingnewsportal.net (Malware)

trendingnewsportal.net.ph (404)

trendingnewsportal.blogspot.com (Down)

trendingnewsportal-ph.blogspot.com (Down)

tnp.today (Blank)

"Trending News Portal makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completenesss of the content contain on this website or and sites linked to this site". Changed URLs multiple times. Frequently shared by Mocha Uson on her Facebook page Mocha Uson Blog.[86] Run by Twinmark Media Enterprises, whose entire network of pages was banned by Facebook in January 2019 for spammy practices and "coordinated inauthentic behavior". 220 Facebook pages, 73 Facebook accounts and 29 Instagram accounts were removed.[87][88] [23][35][86]
Tomorrow Economy www.tomorrow-economy.com Blatantly imitates the Manila Times website. Same article as Earning Mania. Down
Trending Balita trendingbalita.info Now Down/Under Construction. [35]
Trending News Video trendingnewsvideo.com Down. [19]
Trending Topics trendingtopics.altervista.org Suspended. [19]
Trending Viral trendingviral.tk "The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site.... will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor the availability of this information...". Now down. [23][19]
TV CNN tv-cnn.com Masquerades as CNN. Legitimate URLs are cnn.com, edition.cnn.com (for CNN International), and cnnphilippines.com. Down [25]
Unang Hirit unanghirit.info Imitates the GMA Network morning news program of the same name. Down. [74]
Update.ph update.ph [19]
Updated Tayo updatetayo.info Down. [89]
Verified Philippines verifiedph.blogspot.com [19]
Viral Duterte News balitangtotoo.xyz Traffic generated by Facebook groups President Rodrigo Duterte Facebook Army, Inday Sara Duterte Supporters and President Rody Duterte – Federal Movement International. Empty [90]
Viral Portal viralportal.ml Down. [19]
World Trends worldstrends.info Down. [30]
XOLXOL xolxol.ph [57]


Fake news sites have become rampant for Philippine audiences, especially being shared on social media.[91] Politicians have started filing laws to combat fake news[92][11] and three Senate hearings have been held on the topic.[93][94][95]

The Catholic Church in the Philippines has also released a missive speaking out against it.[96]

Vera Files research at the end of 2017 and 2018 show that the most shared fake news in the Philippines appeared to benefit 2 people the most: President Rodrigo Duterte (as well as his allies) and politician and later president Bongbong Marcos, with the most viral news driven by shares on networks of Facebook pages.[22] Most Philippine audience Facebook pages and groups spreading online disinformation also bear "Duterte", "Marcos" or "News" in their names and are pro-Duterte.[49] Online disinformation in the Philippines is overwhelmingly political as well, with most attacking groups or individuals critical of the Duterte administration.[97] Many Philippine-audience fake news websites also appear to be controlled by the same operators as they share common Google AdSense and Google Analytics IDs.[49]

According to media scholar Jonathan Corpus Ong, Duterte's presidential campaign is regarded as the patient zero in the current era of disinformation, having preceded widespread global coverage of the Cambridge Analytica scandal and Russian trolls.[98] Fake news is so established and severe in the Philippines that Facebook's Global Politics and Government Outreach Director Katie Harbath also calls it "patient zero"[99] in the global misinformation epidemic, having happened before Brexit, the Trump nomination and the 2016 US Elections.[100]

See also


  1. ^ a b Javier, Kristian. "Pangilinan Wants Facebook Penalized over Fake News". philstar.com. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  2. ^ Javier, Kristian. "LP: Social Media Being Used to Legitimize 'fake News'". philstar.com. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  3. ^ Mozur, Paul; Scott, Mark (November 17, 2016). "Fake News in U.S. Election? Elsewhere, That's Nothing New". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  4. ^ Mozur, Paul; Scott, Mark (November 17, 2016). "Fake News in U.S. Election? Elsewhere, That's Nothing New". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  5. ^ BBC (December 7, 2016). "Trolls and triumph: a digital battle in the Philippines". BBC News. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  6. ^ Syjuco, Miguel (October 2017). "Fake News Floods the Philippines". The New York Times.
  7. ^ Bradshaw, Samantha; Howard, Philip N. (Winter 2017). "Troops, Trolls, and Trouble Makers: A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation" (PDF). Oxford Computational Propaganda Research Project: 21 – via Oxford University.
  8. ^ Ramos, Marlon (June 8, 2017). "Did Justice Secretary Aguirre fall for fake news?". newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  9. ^ Ayalin, Adrian (September 22, 2017). "Trillanes sues Uson for spreading 'news' on alleged bank accounts". ABS-CBN.
  10. ^ "Asec Mocha Uson herself spreads fake news, says Nancy Binay". September 20, 2017.
  11. ^ a b Santos, Eimor (June 22, 2017). "Bill filed vs. fake news: Up to ₱10M fine, 10-year jail time for erring public officials". CNN Philippines.
  12. ^ Elemia, Camille (June 22, 2017). "Senate bill seeks jail time for gov't officials spreading fake news". CNN Philippines.
  13. ^ Bajo, Anna Felicia (June 23, 2017). "CBCP calls on faithful to help stop the spread of fake news". GMA News. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  14. ^ Bondoc, Marlly Rome (June 27, 2017). "CBCP releases list of fake news sites". GMA News. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  15. ^ a b "Fake news production and social media 'trolls'". University of Leeds. February 12, 2018.
  16. ^ "Ad, PR execs are 'chief architects' of disinformation in Philippines — study". The Philippine STAR.
  17. ^ "Chief disinformation architects in the PH: Not exactly who you think". February 11, 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d Corpus Ong, Jonathan; A. Cabañes, Jason Vincent (2018), "Architects of Networked Disinformation: Behind the Scenes of Troll Accounts and Fake News Production in the Philippines" (PDF), The Newton, University of Massachusetts, University of Leeds, doi:10.7275/2cq4-5396
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "More 'fake news' sites blacklisted by NUJP, CMFR". GMA News Online. December 7, 2017.
  20. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Shark swimming in 'Mariking' river FAKE NEWS". Vera Files. July 29, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Tip of the iceberg: Tracing the network of spammy pages in Facebook takedown". Rappler. October 27, 2018.
  22. ^ a b "VERA FILES YEARENDER: Who benefited most from fake news, and other questions, answered in three charts". Vera Files. December 22, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Knowing Your Source: Think Before You Click". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. October 4, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  24. ^ a b c Ramos, Marlon. "Did Justice Secretary Aguirre fall for fake news?". Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bueno, Anna (October 12, 2017). "The anatomy of 'fake news'". CNN Philippines.
  26. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Kris Aquino DID NOT wear Marcos jewelry to Hollywood film premiere". August 21, 2018.
  27. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Website revives twice-flagged FAKE report on Duterte and ICC". Vera Files. July 26, 2018.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bueza, Michael (October 23, 2018). "LIST: False news shared by PH-based pages taken down by Facebook". Rappler.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Fake news sites to be aware of this 2018". Meme Buster. February 16, 2018.
  30. ^ a b "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Rape video of OFW in Middle East FAKE NEWS". August 9, 2018.
  31. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Reviving old report, website FAKES content of pope's letter to Duterte". Vera Files. July 25, 2018.
  32. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story claiming Marcos won poll case vs Robredo FAKE". Vera Files. April 27, 2018.
  33. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Bato Dela Rosa 'murder' at BuCor a HOAX". Vera Files. July 12, 2018.
  34. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Claim of media not reporting London anti-Robredo protest false". Vera Files. April 20, 2018.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Spotted: Dubious "News" Sites That Deserve a Prize for Creativity". Spot.ph. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  36. ^ a b "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Websites publish OUTDATED, MISLEADING reports about FVR theory on Ninoy Aquino's death". Vera Files. August 27, 2018.
  37. ^ a b c d "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Kuwait DID NOT get on its knees to ask forgiveness from Duterte after diplomatic row". Vera Files. May 3, 2018.
  38. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story claiming Robredo loses post to Marcos in vote recount NOT TRUE". Vera Files. May 10, 2018.
  39. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report claiming 'new evidence' of fraud in 2016 polls MISLEADING". Vera Files. August 3, 2018.
  40. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report claiming US intel officer said Marcos lost 1.7M votes in 2016 FALSE". Vera Files. August 7, 2018.
  41. ^ a b "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Reports rehashing claims Robredo got 8,700 ghost votes in 2016 FALSE". Vera Files. August 8, 2018.
  42. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Online post twists COA findings on CHR". Vera Files. August 13, 2018.
  43. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Recycled online post SKEWS former CBCP president's statement on 'homily abuse'". Vera Files. November 17, 2018.
  44. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Alejano to have Duterte arrested for drug war untrue". Vera Files. April 18, 2018.
  45. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report claiming Robredo and Roxas have left LP NOT TRUE". Vera Files. November 1, 2018.
  46. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Customs chief 'dismissal' over missed P6.8B illegal drug shipment FAKE NEWS". Vera Files. August 20, 2018.
  47. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Website recycles FALSE CLAIM on 'new MRT trains' under Duterte admin". Vera Files. August 16, 2018.
  48. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report claiming Drilon and Pangilinan LP presidential bets for 2022 not true". Vera Files. April 24, 2018.
  49. ^ a b "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Online post about Robredo urging EU to investigate Duterte MISLEADING". Vera Files. April 26, 2018.
  50. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Sen. Bam Aquino never claimed to be 'principal author' of free education bill". Vera Files. April 17, 2018.
  51. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Online post about Duterte 'rejecting' Robredo's proposal to 'legalize' drugs rehashed, FAKE NEWS". Vera Files. May 29, 2018.
  52. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Online post MISLEADS by recycling "most stupid politician" comment of Duterte vs Pangilinan". Vera Files. May 14, 2018.
  53. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Enrile DID NOT 'slap' Sotto for proposing De Lima 'release'". Vera Files. July 10, 2018.
  54. ^ a b "Here's a list fake news, satirical sites trying to mimic GMA News, 10 other established media site". Meme Buster. May 16, 2017.
  55. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Pro-Duterte vlogger makes MISLEADING claim about CHR expenses in online post". Vera Files. July 14, 2018.
  56. ^ a b c d e f Jacinto, Baxter (October 17, 2016). "Fake News Websites You Should Be Wary About". 8List.ph. ID8 Inc. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  57. ^ "GMA News Online – Your News Authority". Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  58. ^ "Public warned against fake website with GMA News Online logo". GMA News. June 2, 2017.
  59. ^ Quilinguing, Kim G (September 28, 2019). "The problem with fake news: UP experts speak on the impact of disinformation on politics, society and democracy". University of the Philippines.
  60. ^ "Here's a list fake news, satirical sites trying to mimic GMA News, 10 other established media sites". MemeBuster. May 16, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  61. ^ Uson, Mocha (February 26, 2018). "Follow po natin ang Good News Network Philippines". Facebook.
  62. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Robredo camp wants Iloilo City, NOT province, out of vote recount". Vera Files. May 28, 2018.
  63. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Online post MISLEADS with previously published story of Vietnam PM praising Duterte". Vera Files. May 15, 2018.
  64. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Pangilinan DID NOT say attacks against Robredo and former tourism chief Jimenez 'not right'". Vera Files. May 9, 2018.
  65. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story about anti-Duterte blog MISLEADS by using unrelated photo and outdated tweet". Vera Files. May 8, 2018.
  66. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story about Bam Aquino saying he will be 'voice and protector' of Filipinos MISLEADING". Vera Files. April 26, 2018.
  67. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story claiming EU Socialist Party official to "meddle more aggressively in PH" misleading". Vera Files. April 25, 2018.
  68. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: ICC case vs Duterte NOT 'thrown out'". Vera Files. June 6, 2018.
  69. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report on Catholic Church's "strong" resistance to proposed taxation misleading". Vera Files. April 23, 2018.
  70. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Another 'ANC' impostor site peddles cure for hypertension, clogged blood vessels". Vera Files. March 28, 2023.
  71. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Bam Aquino DID NOT say Duterte made many Filipinos poor". Vera Files. June 9, 2018.
  72. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: De Lima WILL NOT be transferred to Bilibid". Vera Files. May 25, 2018.
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  74. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story claiming Marcos speech contains "evidence" against Cory Aquino untrue". Vera Files. April 24, 2018.
  75. ^ "CBCP guide lists websites peddling fake news". Rappler. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  76. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Corpses of foreigners found in Boracay FAKE NEWS". Vera Files. June 22, 2018.
  77. ^ a b "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Reports about 'child-beating' woman shot dead FAKE NEWS". Vera Files. August 21, 2018.
  78. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Website MISLEADS with outdated story on 'evidence' of Duterte ouster plot". Vera Files. May 11, 2018.
  79. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Story claiming Robredo loses post to Marcos in vote recount NOT TRUE". Vera Files. May 10, 2018.
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  81. ^ "VERA FILES FACT CHECK: Report on Recto calling Duterte a 'crazy dog' OLD and FALSE". Vera Files. July 5, 2018.
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