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Definition of CPU Maybe we sometimes ask, how can a computer process data so quickly and precisely? The answer is, like humans, computers have a "brain", which is called the CPU (Central Processing Unit).
CPU is the most important processing unit in computer devices. The term CPU is sometimes expressed as a box or casing in which there are several hardware devices, such as a motherboard, hard drive, RAM, VGA card, cable (power supply), and so on. When in fact the CPU is hardware (hardware) contained in the casing and found on the motherboard.
So that you don't misunderstand about the CPU anymore, this article will provide more detailed information about the CPU on a computer. Also explained about the components of the CPU and how the CPU works on the computer.
Definition of Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is computer hardware that understands and executes commands and data from software. Another term for processing CPU (processor), often used to refer to the CPU. Microprocessors are CPUs that are manufactured on integrated circuits. Since the mid-1970s, integrated circuit microprocessors have been in common use and have become an important aspect of CPU execution.
Here are several CPU components, consisting of:
1. Control Unit
The control unit that manages the program. This component is certainly present in all CPUs. The CPU is in charge of controlling the computer so that synchronization that occurs between components works in carrying out operating functions. including the responsibility of the control unit is to fetch commands, instructions from the main memory and determine the type of instruction.
If there are instructions for arithmetic or logical reasoning, the control unit will send instructions to the ALU. The results of data processing are brought by the control unit to the main memory for storage, and the time will be presented to the results of the tool. Thus the duties of this control unit are:
a. Set and control the equipment input (input) and output (output).
b. Fetch instructions from main memory.
c. Retrieving data from main memory (if needed) for processing.
d. Send instructions to the ALU when there are arithmetic calculations and logical comparisons, then monitor the work of the ALU.
e. Store the results of process to main memory.
Register is a small storage device that has access with a fairly high speed, which is used to store data and/or instructions that are being processed. This memory is temporary, usually used to store data for processing or data for further processing.
By analogy, this register can be likened to a memory in the brain when we do manual processing, so the brain can be likened to a CPU that contains memory, a control unit that regulates all body activities and has a place to perform calculations and calculations. . logical comparison.
3. ALU Unit
The ALU unit functions to perform arithmetic and logic operations based on specified instructions. ALU is often called machine language because in this section ALU consists of two parts, namely arithmetic units and boolean logic units, each of which has its own job specifications.
The main task of the ALU is to carry out all arithmetic calculations that are performed according to program instructions. The ALU performs all arithmetic operations based on addition, so the electronic circuit used is called an adder.
Another task of the ALU is to make decisions on logical operations according to program instructions. Logical operations include the comparison of two operands using certain logical operators, namely equal to (=), not equal to (¹), less than (<), less than or equal to (£), greater than (>), and more greater than or equal to (³).
CPU interconnect and system bus connections connect the internal components of the CPU, i.e. ALU, control unit and registers and also with external CPU buses that connect with other systems, such as main memory, input/output devices.
4. CPU Interconnections
It is a connection system and bus that connects the CPU's internal components, namely ALU, control units and registers, as well as with the CPU's external buses that are connected to other systems. Such as main memory, input/output devices.
The following contains several parts of the CPU, consisting of:
The casing is the outermost part of the PC which is often referred to as the CPU, its function is as a cover and seat for other components as well as protecting the components inside from dirt and dust.
Processor is the brain or parent of any computer processing, I explained the explanation of the processor above.
The motherboard, as the name suggests, is a circuit board that functions as a seat for electronic components or other computer components that are connected to each other. Its main function is to connect each component so that they can communicate with each other and exchange data with each other.
RAM (Random Access Memory) is a computer's main memory that functions as a storage area for data that has been processed by the processor before proceeding to other parts that need it, therefore RAM is also often referred to as temporary storage memory.
5. Hard drive
The hard disk functions as a conventional data storage area that is commonly used. Generally, today's hard drives have very large storage capacities ranging from hundreds of GB to TB. Examples of data stored on the hard disk are songs, videos, images, applications and so on.
6. VGA Card
VGA (Video Graphic Editor) Card is a component that functions to process graphical data to display it on a monitor. VGA Card is one of the most important components when running applications that display graphics on a monitor such as games, videos and so on.
7. Sound Card
Sound Card functions to process data in the form of audio or sound from/to related hardware such as speakers and mics.
8. Optical Disk Drives
Optical Disk Drive or more commonly referred to as CD/DVD Room alone is a component that functions to read and write to CD/DVD discs.
9. Power Supply
Power Supply serves to forward or flow electricity to each component of the computer so that it can operate.
The CPU works like a calculator, only much more powerful in terms of processing CPU power. The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data retrieved from memory or from information entered via some hardware device, such as a keyboard, scanner, lever controls, and mouse. The CPU is controlled using a set of computer software.
The software can be run by the CPU to read from storage media, such as hard drives, floppy disks, CDs, or tape recorders. These instructions are then stored first in physical memory (MAA), where each instruction will be assigned a unique address called a memory address. Furthermore, the CPU can access the data on the MAA to determine the desired data address.
When the program is executed, data flows from the RAM to a unit called the bus, which connects the CPU to the MAA. The data is then decoded using a process known as an instruction decoder unit which can translate instructions.
The data then goes to the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) which does the calculations and comparisons. Data can be temporarily stored by the ALU in memory locations called registers which can be retrieved quickly for processing.
ALU can perform certain operations, including adding, adding, subtracting, testing data conditions in registers, sending processing results back to physical memory, storage media, or registering if it is going to do processing again. During this process, a unit in the CPU called the program counter will monitor the instructions that have been successfully executed so that these instructions can be executed in the correct and proper order.
How CPUs Work
When data/instructions are entered into the processing device they are first placed in the MAA (via input storage). If in the form of instructions stored by the Control Unit in the Program-storage, but in the form of data stored in the Working-storage).
If the register is ready to receive work execution, the Control Unit will take instructions from the Program-storage to be placed in the Instruction Register, while the memory address containing the instructions is stored in the program counter. While the data is taken by the Work Unit Control-storage to be accommodated in the general purpose register (in this case the Operand-list).
If the work done by the instructions is arithmetic and logical, the ALU will take over the operations to be performed based on the instruction set. The result is stored in the accumulator. If the processing results have been completed, the Control Unit will take the processing results in the accumulator to be accommodated back to the Working-storage.
If the overall construction has been completed, the Control Unit will process the Work Storage to be accommodated in the Output Storage. Later output-storage, processing results will be displayed to the output device.
The processing of instructions on the CPU is divided into two stages, Stage-I is called Instruction Fetch, while Stage-II is called Instruction Execute. Phase-I contains CPU processing in which the Control Unit retrieves data and/or instructions from main memory to registers, while Stage-II contains CPU processing in which the Control Unit sends data and/or instructions from registers to main memory to be accommodated in the MAA, after Fetch instruction complete. The time at stage-I plus the time at stage-II is called the machine cycle time.
The program counter on the CPU generally moves sequentially. However, some instructions in the CPU, which are called truncated instructions, allow the CPU to access instructions that are not sequential. This is called instruction branching. Branch instructions can be conditional (have certain conditions) or unconditional.
The non-conditional branch always switches to a new instruction outside of the instruction stream, whereas the conditional branch checks the first result of the previous operation to see if the branch instruction will be executed or not. The data needed for branching instructions is stored in locations called flags.
Numbers it can handle
Most CPUs can handle two types of numbers, fixed-point and floating-point. Fixed point numbers have a specific digit value for one decimal point. It doesn't limit the range of possible values for these numbers, but it will be computed by a faster CPU.
Meanwhile, floating-point numbers are numbers expressed in scientific notation, where they are represented as a decimal number multiplied by a power of 10 (such as 3.14 x 1057). Scientific notation like this is a shorthand way of expressing very large numbers or very small numbers, and it's also possible to get multiple values before and after the decimal point.
These numbers are generally used to represent graphics and scientific works, but the arithmetic process on floating-point numbers is much more complicated and can be completed in a much longer time by the CPU as it may require several cycles of CPU speed.
Some computers use their own processor for calculating floating-point numbers called an FPU (also known as a math co-processor) that can work in parallel with the CPU to speed up floating-point number calculations. FPUs are currently the standard on many computers because most applications today operate using floating-point numbers. 181
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